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Bubbles are originally injected into the licoreria cerca de mi dough when mixed, which results in the formation of a network of gas cells in the crumb of bread. The final gas volume of bread can be more than 70% of the loaf’s volume, and the gas cells’ size and density can vary, which can result in significant changes in the texture and sensory qualities of the finished product (Zghal et al., 2002). The bubble or gas cell size distribution, and consequently the final crumb structure, are susceptible to being influenced at any point in the baking process. High-energy mixing causes bubbles to be generated or entrained in the dough. The gluten matrix stabilizes the bubbles by constraining them in the viscoelastic network, preventing coalescence and disentrainment. 


When mixing takes place, the size of the bubbles licoreriacerca de mi is primarily determined by the type of mixer being used and the amount of energy being put into the process (Hanselmann & Windham, 1998), which also takes into account the rheology of the system being mixed (Koczo& Racz, 1991). The gas pressure utilized throughout the various mixing stages can be used to manage oxidation and the size of bubbles and, consequently, crumb structure (Campbell et al., 1998).


On the other hand, surface tension, which plays a significant role in determining bubble size in liquid foams (Nakai & Li-Chan, 1993), does not appear to play a role in determining bubble size while doughs are being mixed (Campbell et al., 2001). After they have been generated, the bubbles will continue to grow due to the yeast’s production of carbon dioxide during the succeeding proving stages. The bubbles grow larger and move closer to one another as the proofing process moves forward. At this point, the walls that separate them are becoming thinner and more prone to destabilization as the process continues. 


Coalescence of neighbouring gas cells due to rupturing an unstable dividing wall or lamella is the primary process contributing to destabilization. The other process is called disproportionation, which refers to the movement of gas mass from smaller bubbles to larger ones. Laplace pressure gradients between bubbles of varying sizes drive this movement. However, it was discovered that disproportionation occurs in unfermented doughs (Shimiya & Nakamura, 1997), but this was not the case in fermented doughs, where the size of the smaller bubbles stayed constant. This was not the case in fermented doughs. This was likely the result of the higher Laplace pressure in the smaller bubbles reaching an equilibrium with the pace at which CO2 was being produced. Because of the yeast’s enhanced synthesis of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the heat-induced gas expansion, the bubbles produced go through a subsequent, more rapid expansion phase during the early stages of the baking process. However, when the fermentation, and consequently the creation of CO2, comes to an end, the smaller bubbles vanish very quickly. Toward the end of the baking process, the walls between the bubbles crack, allowing the gases and steam that were previously contained inside to escape (Gan et al., 1995). The bubble network can be thought of as a form of the foam structure. Foam creation occurs during mixing, and concerns concerning foam stabilization are most prevalent during proving. Baking causes the continuous dough phase to become firm, which establishes the foam structure. The bubbles then burst, forming gas cells in an interconnecting sponge network. This all happens while the dough is being baked.

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